Mar 11, 2013 7:03:08 AM
Creating a Self-Signed SSL Certificate using PowerShell

There are many ways to create self-signed certificates; some require additional tools that are not typically available on a Windows server or use cryptic commands. This PowerShell script offers an easy way to create SSL certificates without requiring anything that isn't typically installed on a Windows server.

Note: You can also use this script to create self-signed certificates for AD FS 2.0 token signing and token decryption certificates with a lifetime of your choosing.

To use the script:

  • Edit the create-ssl.ps1 file to set the subject and lifetime to your desired values.
  • Decide if you want to use the sha1 (default) or sha256 hashing algorithm in the certificate and configure the useSHA256 value to true or false as needed.
  • Open a command window using the "Run as administrator" option.
  • Execute the create-ssl.bat file.
  • Look in your machine certificate store to see the new certificate.

The script will place the certificate in the local machine personal certificate store (also known as the "My" store), which is likely exactly where you want your SSL certificate to be.

To quickly view the subject and thumbprint of certificates in your local machine store you can use the following PowerShell command:

dir cert:\LocalMachine\My

create-ssl.bat

powershell.exe -command ^
"& {set-executionpolicy Remotesigned -Scope Process; .'.\create-ssl.ps1' }"
pause

create-ssl.ps1

######## START OF CONFIGURABLE OPTIONS ##########
$subject = "adfs.example.com"

$lifeTimeDays = 365*2
$keySize = 2048

$useSHA256 = $true
#$useSHA256 = $false
# The default SHA1 algorithm is more compatible but less secure then SHA256

######## END OF CONFIGURABLE OPTIONS ##########

# The following area includes the enumerations used with the interfaces
$AlternativeNameType = @{
XCN_CERT_ALT_NAME_UNKNOWN = 0
XCN_CERT_ALT_NAME_OTHER_NAME = 1
XCN_CERT_ALT_NAME_RFC822_NAME = 2
XCN_CERT_ALT_NAME_DNS_NAME = 3
XCN_CERT_ALT_NAME_DIRECTORY_NAME = 5
XCN_CERT_ALT_NAME_URL = 7
XCN_CERT_ALT_NAME_IP_ADDRESS = 8
XCN_CERT_ALT_NAME_REGISTERED_ID = 9
XCN_CERT_ALT_NAME_GUID = 10
XCN_CERT_ALT_NAME_USER_PRINCIPLE_NAME = 11
}

$ObjectIdGroupId = @{
XCN_CRYPT_ANY_GROUP_ID = 0
XCN_CRYPT_HASH_ALG_OID_GROUP_ID = 1
XCN_CRYPT_ENCRYPT_ALG_OID_GROUP_ID = 2
XCN_CRYPT_PUBKEY_ALG_OID_GROUP_ID = 3
XCN_CRYPT_SIGN_ALG_OID_GROUP_ID = 4
XCN_CRYPT_RDN_ATTR_OID_GROUP_ID = 5
XCN_CRYPT_EXT_OR_ATTR_OID_GROUP_ID = 6
XCN_CRYPT_ENHKEY_USAGE_OID_GROUP_ID = 7
XCN_CRYPT_POLICY_OID_GROUP_ID = 8
XCN_CRYPT_TEMPLATE_OID_GROUP_ID = 9
XCN_CRYPT_LAST_OID_GROUP_ID = 9
XCN_CRYPT_FIRST_ALG_OID_GROUP_ID = 1
XCN_CRYPT_LAST_ALG_OID_GROUP_ID = 4
XCN_CRYPT_OID_DISABLE_SEARCH_DS_FLAG = 0x80000000
XCN_CRYPT_KEY_LENGTH_MASK = 0xffff0000
}

$X509KeySpec = @{
XCN_AT_NONE = 0 # The intended use is not identified.
# This value should be used if the provider is a
# Cryptography API: Next Generation (CNG) key storage provider (KSP).
XCN_AT_KEYEXCHANGE = 1 # The key can be used for encryption or key exchange.
XCN_AT_SIGNATURE = 2 # The key can be used for signing.
}

$X509PrivateKeyExportFlags = @{
XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_EXPORT_NONE = 0
XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_EXPORT_FLAG = 0x1
XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_PLAINTEXT_EXPORT_FLAG = 0x2
XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_ARCHIVING_FLAG = 0x4
XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_PLAINTEXT_ARCHIVING_FLAG = 0x8
}

$X509PrivateKeyUsageFlags = @{
XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_USAGES_NONE = 0
XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_DECRYPT_FLAG = 0x1
XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_SIGNING_FLAG = 0x2
XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_KEY_AGREEMENT_FLAG = 0x4
XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_ALL_USAGES = 0xffffff
}

$X509CertificateEnrollmentContext = @{
ContextUser = 0x1
ContextMachine = 0x2
ContextAdministratorForceMachine = 0x3
}

$X509KeyUsageFlags = @{
DIGITAL_SIGNATURE = 0x80 # Used with a Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA)
# to support services other than nonrepudiation,
# certificate signing, or revocation list signing.
KEY_ENCIPHERMENT = 0x20 # Used for key transport.
DATA_ENCIPHERMENT = 0x10 # Used to encrypt user data other than cryptographic keys.
}

$EncodingType = @{
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_BASE64HEADER = 0
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_BASE64 = 0x1
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_BINARY = 0x2
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_BASE64REQUESTHEADER = 0x3
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_HEX = 0x4
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_HEXASCII = 0x5
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_BASE64_ANY = 0x6
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_ANY = 0x7
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_HEX_ANY = 0x8
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_BASE64X509CRLHEADER = 0x9
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_HEXADDR = 0xa
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_HEXASCIIADDR = 0xb
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_HEXRAW = 0xc
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_NOCRLF = 0x40000000
XCN_CRYPT_STRING_NOCR = 0x80000000
}

$InstallResponseRestrictionFlags = @{
AllowNone = 0x00000000
AllowNoOutstandingRequest = 0x00000001
AllowUntrustedCertificate = 0x00000002
AllowUntrustedRoot = 0x00000004
}

$X500NameFlags = @{
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_NONE = 0
XCN_CERT_SIMPLE_NAME_STR = 1
XCN_CERT_OID_NAME_STR = 2
XCN_CERT_X500_NAME_STR = 3
XCN_CERT_XML_NAME_STR = 4
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_SEMICOLON_FLAG = 0x40000000
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_NO_PLUS_FLAG = 0x20000000
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_NO_QUOTING_FLAG = 0x10000000
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_CRLF_FLAG = 0x8000000
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_COMMA_FLAG = 0x4000000
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_REVERSE_FLAG = 0x2000000
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_FORWARD_FLAG = 0x1000000
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_DISABLE_IE4_UTF8_FLAG = 0x10000
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_ENABLE_T61_UNICODE_FLAG = 0x20000
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_ENABLE_UTF8_UNICODE_FLAG = 0x40000
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_FORCE_UTF8_DIR_STR_FLAG = 0x80000
XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_DISABLE_UTF8_DIR_STR_FLAG = 0x100000
}

$ObjectIdPublicKeyFlags = @{
XCN_CRYPT_OID_INFO_PUBKEY_ANY = 0
XCN_CRYPT_OID_INFO_PUBKEY_SIGN_KEY_FLAG = 0x80000000
XCN_CRYPT_OID_INFO_PUBKEY_ENCRYPT_KEY_FLAG = 0x40000000
}

$AlgorithmFlags = @{
AlgorithmFlagsNone = 0
AlgorithmFlagsWrap = 0x1
}

# Only the following RDNs are supported in the subject name
# IX500DistinguishedName Interface
# http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa377051%28v=VS.85%29.aspx
# C, CN, E, EMAIL, DC, G, GivenName, I, L, O, OU, S, ST, STREET, SN, T, TITLE

# Note we build the subject as CN=subject
$subjectName = "CN=" + $subject
$objSubjectDN = New-Object -ComObject X509Enrollment.CX500DistinguishedName
$objSubjectDN.Encode($subjectName, $X500NameFlags.XCN_CERT_NAME_STR_NONE)

# Build a private key
$objKey = New-Object -ComObject X509Enrollment.CX509PrivateKey
$objKey.ProviderName = "Microsoft RSA SChannel Cryptographic Provider"
$objKey.KeySpec = $X509KeySpec.XCN_AT_KEYEXCHANGE
$objKey.KeyUsage = $X509PrivateKeyUsageFlags.XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_ALL_USAGES
$objKey.Length = $keySize
$objKey.MachineContext = $TRUE
$objKey.ExportPolicy = $X509PrivateKeyExportFlags.XCN_NCRYPT_ALLOW_PLAINTEXT_EXPORT_FLAG
$objKey.Create()

# Add the Server Authentication EKU OID
$objServerAuthenticationOid = New-Object -ComObject X509Enrollment.CObjectId
$strServerAuthenticationOid = "1.3.6.1.5.5.7.3.1"
$objServerAuthenticationOid.InitializeFromValue($strServerAuthenticationOid)

$objEkuoids = New-Object -ComObject X509Enrollment.CObjectIds
$objEkuoids.add($objServerAuthenticationOid)
$objEkuext = New-Object -ComObject X509Enrollment.CX509ExtensionEnhancedKeyUsage
$objEkuext.InitializeEncode($objEkuoids)

# Set the Key Usage to Key Encipherment and Digital Signature
$keyUsageExt = New-Object -ComObject X509Enrollment.CX509ExtensionKeyUsage
$keyUsageExt.InitializeEncode($X509KeyUsageFlags.KEY_ENCIPHERMENT -bor `
$X509KeyUsageFlags.DIGITAL_SIGNATURE )

$strTemplateName = "" # We don't use a certificate template
$cert = New-Object -ComObject X509Enrollment.CX509CertificateRequestCertificate
# Notice we use $X509CertificateEnrollmentContext.ContextMachine
$cert.InitializeFromPrivateKey($X509CertificateEnrollmentContext.ContextMachine, `
   $objKey, `
   $strTemplateName)
$cert.X509Extensions.Add($keyUsageExt)
$cert.Subject = $objSubjectDN
$cert.Issuer = $cert.Subject

if ($useSHA256)
{
  # Set the hash algorithm to sha256 instead of the default sha1
  $hashAlgorithmObject = New-Object -ComObject X509Enrollment.CObjectId
  $hashAlgorithmObject.InitializeFromAlgorithmName( `
  $ObjectIdGroupId.XCN_CRYPT_HASH_ALG_OID_GROUP_ID, `
  $ObjectIdPublicKeyFlags.XCN_CRYPT_OID_INFO_PUBKEY_ANY, `
  $AlgorithmFlags.AlgorithmFlagsNone, "SHA256")
  $cert.HashAlgorithm = $hashAlgorithmObject
}

# We subtract one day from the start time to avoid timezone or other
#   time issues where cert is not yet valid
$SubtractDays = New-Object System.TimeSpan 1, 0, 0, 0, 0
$curdate = get-date
$cert.NotBefore = $curdate.Subtract($SubtractDays)
$cert.NotAfter = $cert.NotBefore.AddDays($lifeTimeDays)
$cert.X509Extensions.Add($objEkuext)
$cert.Encode()

# Now we create the cert from the request we have built up and
#   install it into the certificate store
$enrollment = New-Object -ComObject X509Enrollment.CX509Enrollment
$enrollment.InitializeFromRequest($cert)
$certdata = $enrollment.CreateRequest($EncodingType.XCN_CRYPT_STRING_BASE64HEADER)
$strPassword = ""
$enrollment.InstallResponse($InstallResponseRestrictionFlags.AllowUntrustedCertificate, `
  $certdata, $EncodingType.XCN_CRYPT_STRING_BASE64HEADER, $strPassword)

To learn more about the PowerShell execution policy and code signing or signed scripts, open a PowerShell window and enter the following command:

Get-Help About_Signing

To make it easier for people to find these scripts, we've included some keywords here that people might have been searching for. The keywords include public key infrastructure (PKI) selfsigned, self-signed, pfx, X.509, SSL.

Many thanks to Doug McDorman for allowing us to post his script for general use.